Contents

0 Preface

 

1 Circuit Concepts

Introduction 1

Waveforms, Ports, and Amplifiers 3

Bipolar Junction Transistors 7

BJT T Model 8

Incremental and Static Resistance 9

Static and Incremental Circuit Design 11

BJT Configurations 12

BJT Biasing 13

CE Amplifier 14

CE Amplifier Quasistatic Model 18

CB Amplifier 20

CC Amplifier 22

Cascade Stages 23

β Transform 24

Input and Output Resistance 26

Lab Experiment: BJT Amplifiers 27

Temperature Effects 30

Cascode Amplifier 32

Lab Experiment: Cascode Amplifier 33

Darlington Circuit 34

Emitter-Coupled Diff-Amp 35

Cascade CE Stages 39

 

2 Feedback Amplifiers

Four Amplifier Types 43

Feedback 43

Op-Amps 47

Inverting Op-Amp 48

Lab Experiment: Inverting Op-Amp 51

Noninverting Op-Amp 53

Lab Experiment: Noninverting Op-Amp 55

BJT Inverting Feedback Amplifier 57

Two-Port Loading 60

Lab Experiment: Inverting Amplifier 61

The Effect of Feedback on ri and ro 62

Feedback Improves Linearity 64

The Miller Effect 67

Shunt-Feedback Amplifier 69

Lab Experiment: Shunt-Feedback Amplifier 73

3-NPN Feedback Amplifier 74

 

3 Matched-Transistor Circuits

Matched-BJT Circuits 83

Current Mirrors 85

Lab Experiment: Current Mirrors 88

BJT Model Parameter ro 90

Translinear Circuits 92

V-to-I Converters 97

High-Side Current Sensing 98

Lab Experiment: High-Side Current-Sense Circuit 104

Complementary BJT Configuration 105

Noninverting BJT-Array Amplifier 107

High-Gain Amplifier Measurement 110

BJT Input-Loop Linearity 111

Thermal Distortion and Input Range 114

Voltage Reference 115

FET Input Amplifier 120

 

4 Circuit Dynamics

Reactance 127

Derivatives and Integrals 130

Sine-Waves 132

Reactance Magnitude and Phase 134

Impedance 137

The Frequency Domain 138

The RC Integrator 140

The RC Differentiator 142

Transfer Functions in s 143

Capacitance Multiplier 148

Lab Experiment: RC Integrator with C Multiplier 149

Frequency Response of Magnitude 149

Step Response 152

Frequency Response of Phase 155

RC Differentiator Frequency Response 156

Resonance 158

Transfer Function Poles from Circuits 165

Bandwidth from OCTCs of Real Poles 187

Quadratic Pole-Pair Bandwidth 169

Approximate Quadratic Bandwidth 171

 

5 Transistor Dynamics

Dynamic BJT Model 174

OCTC of Cc 178

OCTC of Ce 181

OCTC of CL 184

Textbook CE Stage 185

Single-Stage BJT Bandwidth 187

High-Frequency β Transform 189

General Single-Stage CE Gain 198

CE Bandwidth 200

Transmission Lines 205

CE Amplifier Design Refinement 210

CE Dynamics 212

Probe Loading 213

Power Supply Bypassing 214

Buffered CE with Input Termination 215

CE with Emitter Peaking 221

Dynamics Design Overview 227

α(s) Compensation 228

 

6 Amplifier Design

Slew Rate and Large-Signal Bandwidth 231

Multi-Stage Bandwidth 232

Pole Separation 233

Cascade Stage Interaction 234

Emitter Peaking 241

Total-Frequency Emitter Peaking 245

Shunt Inductive Peaking 251

Frequency Response Characterization 262

Series Inductive Peaking 263

Cochrun-Grabel Method 266

Textbook CE Stage Poles 268

Cascade CE Stage Interaction 269

Extra Element Theorem (EET) 273

Single CB Stage Cc 277

Single CE Stage Cc 278

Impedance EET (ZEET) 280

Stability of Feedback Circuits 282

Feedback Increases Bandwidth 285

Quadratic Feedback-Loop Bandwidth 288

Feedback Amplifier Output Impedance 290

Feedback Amplifier Port Impedances 293

 

7 Cascode Amplifiers

Cascode Amplifier 297

Amplifier Design Strategy 298

Monolithic BJT Structure 299

Source Characteristics 300

First-Stage Static and Quasistatic Design 301

Input Linearity 301

Second-Stage Static and Quasistatic Design 307

Thermal Design 310

Thermal Feedback 313

β Sensitivity  314

Power Supply Rejection 315

Static Voltage and Gain Measurements 317

Dynamic Design: Second Stage CB 318

CB Circuit Graphic Design 327

Dynamic Design: Second Stage CE 334

Dynamic Design: First Stage 337

Intrinsic Noise 343

Inverting Cascode Feedback Amplifier 344

Static and Quasistatic Design 347

Dynamic Design 354

Fast BJT Arrays 362

 

8 Differential and Cascade Amplifiers

3-NPN Amplifier Dynamic Response 364

BJT-Array Feedback Amplifier 370

Dual-Path Dynamics 373

Complementary Differential Amplifier 380

Single-Supply Feedback Amplifier 389

Single-Supply Amplifier Dynamics 395

Feedback Damping 398

Amplifier 10 - Single-Supply Amplifier Mathcad program 406

Inverting Feedback Amplifier Dynamics 407

 

9 Current- and Shunt-Feedback Amplifiers

Emitter-Feedback Amplifier 413

Static Design 413

Quasistatic Design 416

Dynamic Design 417

Current-Feedback Amplifiers 426

Noninverting 3-NPN, 2-PNP CFA 431

Shunt-Feedback Amplifiers 436

 

10 A Wider View of Amplifiers    

A/D and D/A Converters in Circuits 442

The Conceptual Organization of Circuits 450

The Engineering Challenge 455

Physical or Behavioral Device Models 457

For Further Reading 463

Closure 468

 

Index

A-Z 469

Amplifiers 475

Symbols 476

 

478 numbered pages

486 total pages

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