Impedance Meters and Analyzers

Impedance meters (ZMs) or RLC meters measure resistance and reactance of two-terminal devices. Measurement is made by driving the device under test (DUT) with a sine-wave voltage or current and measuring the resulting current or voltage. Then a microcontroller computes the resistance or reactance resulting in a displayed value of R, L, or C. A more complete device model that includes series or parallel R and reactance also measures phase between device voltage and current and uses the phase difference to determine the resistive and reactive components of the device impedance.

Impedance analyzers (ZAs) extend the ZM concept by making frequency a variable that is swept over a set range, with source output and response input. ZAs are effectively two-port measurement instruments of limited (relative to TPAs) port versatility that can produce not only impedance plots with frequency but can also measure amplifier or feedback-loop frequency response of magnitude and phase relative to the source. They are in the category of wideband network analyzers in that the response circuits are not tuned as in spectrum analyzers but are wideband, as are oscilloscope or data-acquisition-system amplifiers.

ZM200 Z Meters  

The ZM204 prototype analog electronics is working. The ZM202 is under prototype test. The ZM201 is in design.

ZM200 Series

ZM201

ZM202

ZM203

ZM204

ZM205

ZM206

Priority, Phase

3, C1

2, C2

4

1, D2

6

5

V range, dec

1

2

2

1

2

2

V range, fs

2.5 V

25 mV, 2.5 V

25 mV, 2.5 V

4 V

80 mV, 8 V

40 mV, 4 V

I range, dec

6

6

5

6

6

5

I range, fs

25 nA, 25 mA

25 nA, 25mA

1 μA, 0.1 A

200 nA, 200 mA

4 μA, 4 A

20 μA, 2 A

Z, R range, dec

6

7

7

8

8

7

Z, R range, fs

10 Ω, 100 MΩ

1 Ω, 100 MΩ

250 mΩ, 2.5 MΩ

0.2 Ω, 20 MΩ

20 mΩ, 2 MΩ

20 mΩ, 200 kΩ

Frequency range, dec

1

1

3

1

5

2

ZM Freq range

80 Hz,

800 Hz

80 Hz, 800 Hz

80 Hz,

80 kHz

80 Hz, 800 Hz

1 Hz, 100 kHz

80 Hz, 8 kHz

L, C range, dec

8

9

10

9

13

9

L range, fs

10 mH, 1 MH

200 μH, 200 kH

500 nH, 5 kH

40 μH, 40 kH

100 nH, 1 MH

400 nH, 400 H

C range, fs

10 pF, 1 mF

2 pF, 2 mF

100 fF, 10 mF

10 pF, 10 mF

2.5 pF, 25 F

100 nF, 0.1 F

Generator type

μC DAC, LPF

Wien-brg osc

20 MHz DDS

quadrature osc

VFC

sin, cos DACs

Gen. ampl. control

μC

hw sync int, LPF, JFET

μC

hw pk det, LPF, FET

window comparator

sin, cos DACs

Bridge type

V-src brg

SMU-H

I-src brg

SMU-H

SMU-L

IDR, VSN

Phase detector

zc cmprs cntr

PLL I-Q gen, aSW, LPF

 dual analog mpyr,

sync LPF

aSW mpyr,

LPF

none

analog mpyr, LPF

Acquisition

2000 cnt

μC Σ-Δ

12-bit VFC, Σ-Δ

14-bit VFC, Σ-Δ

12-bit SA ADC

μC 16-bit cntr

14-bit ADC

Power Supply

5 V, 0.25 A

2.5 W

5 V, 100 mA

1 W

5 V, 250 mA

12 V, 100 mA

1.5 W

5 V, 250 mA

5 V, 50 mA

1.5 W

12 V, 4.5 A in

12 V, 4 A

5 V, 50 mA

50 W

5 V, 2.6 A,

5 V, 50 mA

15 W

Front-Panel

3.3-digit LED, 4-sw, digiknob, mode LEDs

3.3-digit LED, 4-sw, digiknob, mode LEDs

4-digit LED, 4-sw, digiknob, mode LEDs

16-char LCD, 4-sw, mode LEDs

4-digit LED, 4-sw, mode LEDs

16 char LCD, 4-sw, mode LEDs

μC

μDAS, ATtiny4313

miniDAS, ATmega8515

miniDAS, ATmega328

Huron, ATmega8515

ATmega328

ATmega328

Notes

Min cost & analog parts, max μC

BK875A-derived

Wide L, C range

Digital sin-cos gen

SMU bridge

General-purpose ZM

Datalogging

Power RCL

VFC-based

Min analog, max μC

PG2A pwr SMU

 ZA200 Z Analyzers  

The Innovatia ZAs are wideband, not narrowband, instruments. Wideband ZAs do not have as large of a dynamic range, but they are simpler (fewer parts) and lower in cost.  

The ZA201 prototype has been functioning but the design is being modified. The ZA202 is in concept phase.

ZA200 Series

ZA201

ZA202

V range, dec

1

2

V range, fs

250 mV, 2.5 V

25 mV, 2.5 V

I range, dec

3

3

I range, fs

100 μA, 1 A

10 μA, 10 mA

ZA Freq range, dec

3

7

ZA Freq range

80 Hz, 80 kHz

80 Hz, 8 MHz

Z, R range, dec

8

5

Z, R range, fs

250 mΩ, 25 kΩ

2.5 Ω, 250 kΩ

L, C range, dec

8

12

L range, fs

500 nH, 50 H

500 nH, 500 H

C range, fs

100 pF, 10 mF

1 pF, 1 mF

Bridge type

Innovatia

Innovatia

Generator type

XR2206

AD9833

Phase acq

cmprs, XOR gate, LPF  μC ADC

aSW mpyr, LPF μC ADC

Magnitude acq

wideband PGA, sync S&H, μC ADC

bandpass PGA, |v|, LPF μC ADC

FRA Freq range

5 Hz, 500 kHz

1 Hz, 10 MHz

Magnitude inaccuracy

1 %

1 %

Phase resolution, deg

0.5

0.5

Board Configuration

μC&FP, ZA, PS

μC&FP, ZA, PS

Front-Panel

8-char LED, 4-sw

Graphic LCD, 4-sw, digiknob

μC

μM  MC56F8025 (M0B)

MC56F8025 (M0B)

Power Supply

12 V, 1 A in

5 V, 1.1 A

12 V, 50 mA

12 W

12 V, 0.25 A in

5 V, 100 mA

12 V, 50 mA

2.5 W

Development Phase & Notes

Design (D0)

power-circuit applications

 Concept (C1)

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