0 Preface

1 Rockets & Rocketeers

Rocket History 1

Rocketeers 4

Rocket Types 5

Rocket Subsystems 7

2 Flight Mechanics

Laws of Motion 12

Ballistics Equations 13

Flight Dynamics 16

The Ideal Rocket Equation 19

Burnout Speed and Apogee 20

Drag and Lift 22

Vehicle Flight Stability 25

Flight Dynamics Model 26

Staging 28

Flight Trajectories 30

MathCAD Sounding Rocket Flight Analysis

flight1.mcd 32

Analytical solution: no drag, gravity loss, vertical ascent,

pressure thrust variation, constant g

flight2.mcd 35

Single-stage analysis with drag and ascent angles;

standard atmosphere; gravity turn

3 Propulsion

Chemical to Kinetic Energy Conversion 47

Thermodynamics: Heat and Work 47

Thermodynamic States and Processes 49

Reversible Processes 50

Flow Work and Control Volumes 52

Enthalpy 53

Specific Heats 54

Specific Heat Ratio and Gases 55

Gibbs Free Energy 60

Combustion Chemistry 61

Stoichiometry 63

Multicomponent Systems 70

First and Second Laws for Reactions 72

Speed of Sound and Mach Number 76

Nozzle Shape 79

Nozzle Thermodynamics 83

Choked Flow and Shock Waves 88

Injectors and Manifolds 92

Engine Cooling 94

Engine Performance 94

4 Structure

Airframes 100

      Body Tube Construction 100

      Tank-Based Construction 101

      Nose Cone 101

Fins and Descent Stabilization 102

Recovery 103

Staging Mechanisms 104

Fluidics 107

      Propellant Delivery 108

Materials 109

      Metal 109

      Non-Metals 110

Mechanics of Materials 111

      Stress and Strain 112

      Stress-Strain Diagrams 114

      Temperature 116

Tank Design 117

      Propulsion System Design 118

Airframe Design 123

      Strength 123

      Resonances 126

      Fatigue 127

Closure & References 128

5 Ground Support

Static Test Stands 129

      Test Stand Structure 129

      Tanks 131

      Instrumentation & Control 132

      Environment 132

      Test Facility Capabilities 132

Test Procedure 134

      Deliverables 134

Launch Facility 135

      Launch Pad Mechanical Systems 136

      Launch Pad Electrical Systems 137

Mission Control 138

Rocket Umbilical Connections 139

      Electrical Umbilical 140

      Fluidic Umbilical 141

6 Launch Events

Mission Planning 142

Recovery 143

Safety 144

Regulations 145

      DOT, FAA, AST 145

      License Requirements 146

      Offshore Operations 148

7 Astrionics Control

Control Systems 150

Flight Control Computer 154

Differential Thrust Vector Control 155

Valve Controllers 158

      Ball Valves 158

      Cryogenic Valves 158

      Ball-Valve Actuation 159

      Unidirectional Valve Controller 161

      Logic gates 163

Igniters and Pyrotechnic Actuators 169

8 Astrionics Instrumentation

Data Acquisition 175

Sensors 176

      2-, 3- and 4-Wire Bridges 178

      RTD Temperature Sensors 179

      Thermocouples 180

      Ambient Temperature 181

      Ambient Pressure 182

      Accelerometer 182

      Power-Supply Voltages and Currents 183

      Flow Inputs 183

      Cryogenic Thermistors 183

Acquisition and Processing Strategy 184

      Bridge Voltage Compensation 186

      Linear Calibration 186

Guidance 188

      Accelerometers 188

      Rate Gyros 188

      Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) 189

Case Study: Huron Rocket

In the Beginning 191

Structural Design 192

Propulsion 195

Flight Controller 197

Valve Controller 199

Where from Here? 200

Index

A-Z 201

 

209 numbered pages

216 nonblank pages

 

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